Michael Hicks: What Is Thought? | WSB #48

July 10, 2018

What is a thought? There are two ways to approach the problem, says philosopher Michael Hicks. One is as a question about introspective experience. The other - favored by Hicks - is as asking about the nature of interpersonal understanding. We do understand each other; and this is what constitutes the existence of thoughts. With this approach established, Hicks explains to what extent it does or doesn't imply an "external" view of mind. We also compare this conception of thought to Gottlob Frege's, and discuss whether it involves a commitment to a "third realm" of abstract objects.

Next week: Michael Hicks: Fiction-Directed Thought

Visit http://williamnava.com or more info!

Special thanks to Jackie Blum for the podcast art, and The Tin Box for the theme music.
Click here for the full list of episodes!

Sources:

Michael Hicks (homepage)
"The Thought" (Gottlob Frege)
"The Extended Mind" (Andy Clark, David Chalmers)

Topics discussed:

0:20 - Introduction to Michael Hicks
2:42 - What are thoughts?
14:15 - Internal or extended thinking
23:46 - Meta-ontology
35:03 - Frege and abstract objects

00:0000:00

Left Market Anarchism | WSB #47

July 3, 2018

Political philosophy begins with the question: who should have political authority and why? Anarchism answers: no one. Popular mythology tells us this is synonymous with chaos and disorder, but there are many reasons to doubt this must be so. In this episode, I argue that anarchism - properly understood - is in fact the correct answer to the problem of political authority; it is the only answer that avoids unjust hierarchies, provides for individual and social freedom, and optimizes for general welfare. This is because, in a word, society is best seen (and run) as a web, not as a pyramid.

Much of my focus is on specifying what I mean by anarchism, and which version of anarchism I'm arguing for. Specifically, I argue that the notion of a free market - again, properly understood - is at the heart of anarchism. At the same time, I argue against "capitalism" as being a confused and rather unhelpful notion, quite removed from the notion of a free market. I also argue against popular libertarian approaches to free markets and anarchism, such as the so-called "non-aggression principle" and property rights. Instead, I zero in on a notion of free market defined as a cultural norm in which monopolies are viewed as unacceptable. This definition, I argue, properly communicates what a free market really is and it provides the necessary conditions for a free and prosperous society. It is, at the same time, a maximally permissive definition: it requires no particular views on interpersonal ethics or lifestyle, and is as compatible with (for example) communism as it is with more familiar notions of "free markets".

Visit http://williamnava.com or more info!

Special thanks to Jackie Blum for the podcast art, and The Tin Box for the theme music.
Click here for the full list of episodes!

Sources:

"'Capitalism' and 'socialism' are anti-concepts" (Roderick Long, video)
"Market Anarchism as Constitutionalism" (Roderick Long)
Pressing the Button (website)

Topics discussed:

0:20 - Intro and disclaimers
5:09 - The question of political authority
7:49 - "The will of the people" justification
12:19 - Resource allocation and "a web, not a pyramid"
14:49 - Unjust hierarchies: the state, capitalism, and others
21:48 - What is capitalism?
26:33 - What is a free market?
31:05 - Against free markets as non-aggression
36:23 - Against free markets as property rights
40:04 - Free markets as anti-monopoly cultural norm
42:35 - Competition as the source of regulation
48:18 - Property rights compatible tyranny
52:44 - Cultural norms
56:12 - Scale, weakness, communism
1:01:50 - More on monopoly, hierarchy, and coordination
1:07:32 - Objections: social order, market regulation, collusion
1:12:44 - Objections: public goods, externalities, defense
1:20:46 - Objections: rent & interest, natural monopolies, epistemic conservatism
1:25:01 - Objections: utopian, people are evil
1:26:26 - Competition as cooperation

00:0000:00

Kit Fine: Metaphysical Ground | WSB #46

June 26, 2018

Some things are true in virtue of other things. For example, the fact that it is either raining or snowing today is true in virtue of the fact that it is raining today (if, indeed, it is). Or consider another example, put in different terms: the fact that my cat Irene exists is sufficient to account for the fact that at least one cat exists. We might then ask: what is this being in virtue of, or accounting for?

Philosophers call this metaphysical ground. Thus, the existence of my cat Irene grounds the fact that at least one cat exists. But how does this grounding relation work? How is it related to logical entailment? To cause? To essence? Is it possible for there to be partial grounding? Can a fact ground itself? If not, does a vicious regress emerge? What is the role of ground in metaphysics? In this interview, metaphysician Kit Fine covers these questions and more before zeroing in on a logical puzzle of ground, related to the paradoxes of self-reference such as the Liar.

Next week: Left Market Anarchism

Visit http://williamnava.com or more info!

Special thanks to Jackie Blum for the podcast art, and The Tin Box for the theme music.
Click here for the full list of episodes!

Sources:

Kit Fine (homepage)
"Vagueness, truth, and logic" (Kit Fine)
"A Guide to Ground" (Kit Fine)
"Some Puzzles of Ground" (Kit Fine)

Topics discussed:

0:20 - Intro to Kit Fine
2:50 - Vagueness
6:44 - What is ground?
10:40 - Realism
16:15 - Two notions of necessary ground
19:10 - Relevance and ground
24:35 - Ground and philosophy, cause and science
28:00 - Ground and ontological reduction
35:18 - Regress, circularity, and weak ground
44:55 - Types of ground and the "source" of logic
52:50 - Ground of ground
1:03:02 - Essence and ground
1:09:10 - A puzzle of ground

00:0000:00

Nicolas Langlitz: Psychedelics and Philosophy | WSB #45

June 19, 2018

Psychedelic substances, such as psilocybin mushrooms, LSD, and ayahuasca, do much more than generate sensory hallucinations. Users often come away with a sense of having gained deep insight into the nature of reality - even if what that insight is, and what is so special about it, can be hard to communicate. Anthropologist Nicolas Langlitz associates it with the "perennial philosophy" - an old idea, popularized by Aldous Huxley, that all world religions communicate the same basic truth. Years after writing the book The Perennial Philosophy, Huxley tried mescaline and LSD and became convinced that psychedelics provide a shortcut to the kinds of mystical experiences that would put us in touch with that basic reality - what he called the "world mind". Langlitz is skeptical that psychedelics really do communicate some kind of metaphysical truth. In this interview, we discuss what psychedelics do reveal, if anything, and what the relationship is between experience and knowledge.

Next week: Kit Fine: Metaphysical Grounding

Visit http://williamnava.com or more info!

Special thanks to Jackie Blum for the podcast art, and The Tin Box for the theme music.
Click here for the full list of episodes!

Sources:

Neuropsychedelia: The Revival of Hallucinogen Research since the Decade of the Brain (Langlitz)
"Is There a Place of Psychedelics in Philosophy?: Fieldwork in Neuro- and Perennial Philosophy" (Langlitz)
Heaven and Hell (Huxley)
The Doors of Perception (Huxley)

Topics discussed:

0:20 - Intro to Nicolas Langlitz
1:05 - Anthropology and philosophy
10:06 - Nick's research on psychedelics
22:23 - Perennial philosophy (Huxley)
29:20 - Indescribable?
33:09 - Materialism and mysticism
41:14 - Diversity v. unity of psychedelic experience
47:40 - Validity and expression of the psychedelic experience
59:50 - Place of psychedelics in society

00:0000:00

Jc Beall: Logic of Christ | WSB #44

June 12, 2018

Christ is a walking contradiction. He is both fully human and fully divine. Indeed, he is both mutable and immutable. According to classical logic, the existence of a true contradiction would imply that everything is the case, no matter how absurd. And so, theologians and Christian metaphysicians have worked for centuries to conceptually make sense of Christ's dual nature in a way that avoids contradiction.

Philosopher and logician Jc Beall argues that these efforts have been motivated by a naive understanding of logic. There are "subclassical" logics - that is, logics weaker than classical logic - in which contradictions do not entail every arbitrary conclusion. And these aren't ad-hoc constructions. Beall argues that one subclassical logic - called First Degree Entailment (FDE) - is, in fact, the correct account of logical consequence, for reasons independent of the Christian problem. Beall covers the basics of how FDE works and why it is the universal or "basement-level" consequence relation. This allows us to have our cake and eat it too: we may take Christ to be, quite literally, both mutable and not mutable, at the same time and in the same respect. This isn't just appealing for its simplicity. Beall suspects that it is essential to Christ's role that he be literally contradictory.

If you're interested in Jc Beall's work and non-classical logic, check out my interview with Greg Restall (part 1 and part 2) on the book Logical Pluralism, co-authored by Beall and Restall.

Next week: Nicolas Langlitz: Psychedelics and Philosophy

Visit http://williamnava.com or more info!

Special thanks to Jackie Blum for the podcast art, and The Tin Box for the theme music.
Click here for the full list of episodes!

Sources:

Jc Beall (homepage)
"Christ - A Contradiction" (Jc Beall; forthcoming)
"Theological Axioms and the Bounds of Logic: Christ as the Fundamental Problem" (Jc Beall)
Spandrels of Truth (Jc Beall)

Topics discussed:

0:20 - Intro to Jc Beall
1:20 - Spandrels of Truth
5:35 - Fundamental problem of Christology
16:23 - Explosion and disjunctive syllogism
25:06 - Other solutions to the fundamental problem
28:57 - Trinity and identity
31:37 - Logic, logical pluralism, and entailment
42:55 - Closure
46:08 - Consequence as "basement level" closure relation
53:19 - First Degree Entailment
1:03:50 - Are truth and falsity mutually exclusive?
1:10:01 - How weak can you go?
1:22:00 - Relevance to Christian practice

00:0000:00

Jason Lee Byas: Against Criminal Justice | WSB #43

June 5, 2018

What gives some people the right to put others in prison? Is prison - and the criminal justice system generally - an ethically permissible method for dealing with criminality?

Individualist anarchist and prison abolitionist Jason Lee Byas goes over the common justifications for the prison system and explains why none of them succeed. Specifically, he covers the doctrines of retributivism (specifically desert retributivism and expressive retributivism), deterrence, rehabilitation, and rights forfeiture, arguing against each. In place of prison, Byas proposes a tort system of restitution. Monetary restitution may not be sufficient to right the wrong of a crime, says Byas; but it is all that the law should mandate, leaving other desired correction or compensation up to community-based initiatives (Byas cites restorative justice as an example of the sort of institutions that can take the place of those corrective aspects of criminal justice that retribution does not address). Byas also explains how a system of monetary restitution can get around problems of class-based inequality (for example, if someone is so rich that they don't mind having to pay to commit a crime, or if someone is so far in debt that another dent wouldn't matter). Finally, he explains how violent offenders who pose an "ongoing threat" might be handled in his preferred system.

Next week: Jc Beall: Logic of Christ

Visit http://williamnava.com or more info!

Special thanks to Jackie Blum for the podcast art, and The Tin Box for the theme music.
Click here for the full list of episodes!

Sources:

Jason Lee Byas (articles at the Center for a Stateless Society)
"Against the Criminal Justice System" (Jason Lee Byas; Part I, Part II, Part III, Part IV, Part V)
"Prisons without Punishment?" (Jason Lee Byas)
"The Irrelevance of Responsibility" (Roderick Long)
The Apology Ritual: A Philosophical Theory of Punishment (Christopher Bennett)
Locked In: The True Causes of Mass Incarceration and How to Achieve Real Reform (John Pfaff)

Topics discussed:

0:20 - Intro to Jason Lee Byas
2:11 - What is prison abolitionism?
5:42 - What about deterrence?
11:50 - Retributivism
15:00 - Desert retributivism
17:58 - Expressive retributivism
28:36 - Rights forfeiture and self-defense
40:44 - Differences in moral intuition
49:47 - Restitution and class difference
1:08:17 - Intention
1:13:47 - Restorative justice and social pressure
1:27:51 - Due process in communities
1:32:36 - Involuntary containment of ongoing threats
1:42:38 - Prospects

00:0000:00

Stephen Read: Bradwardine Solution to the Liar | WSB #42

May 29, 2018

For much of the 20th century, the Liar paradox has stood as an elusive and stubborn puzzle. The main solutions to it have significant drawbacks, such as blocking meaningful cases of self-reference or abandoning bivalence (the principle that all propositions are either true or false and not both). In recent decades, Stephen Read has rediscovered and defended a solution by the medieval thinker Thomas Bradwardine. If Bradwardine's argument is correct, the liar sentence is simply false. When properly examined, its falsity does not imply its truth. Bradwardine shows this with a clever argument that does not require us to abandon classical logic or block self-reference. It does rely on a controversial principle, "closure": any statement implicitly says (or means) everything that follows from what it says. Arguably, whether the Bradwardine solution succeeds or fails to conclusively solve the Liar depends on whether one accepts closure. In this interview, Stephen Read runs through Bradwardine's argument in some detail, then defends it against a few objections.

Bradwardine's argument is rather subtle and abstract and can be hard to follow verbally. Here's a short written version of Bradwardine's argument, with minimum symbolism, that shows each step and notes where logical principles are invoked.

Be sure to listen to the first half of this interview, where Stephen explains the Liar and its significance and solutions in the 20th century.

Next week: Jason Lee Byas: Against Criminal Justice

Visit http://williamnava.com or more info!

Special thanks to Jackie Blum for the podcast art, and The Tin Box for the theme music.
Click here for the full list of episodes!

Sources:

Stephen Read (homepage)
Thomas Bradwardine's Insolubilia (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
"The Liar from John Buridan back to Thomas Bradwardine" (Stephen Read)
"Read on Bradwardine on the Liar" (Graham Priest)
"Lessons on truth from medieval solutions to the Liar paradox" (C. Dutilh Novaes)

Topics discussed:

2:20 - Intro on medieval logic
5:17 - Restriction and cassation
9:55 - Possibility of self-reference
14:38 - Intro to Bradwardine's solution
22:19 - Running through Bradwardine's argument
28:39 - Bradwardine's theory of truth v. Tarski's
32:29 - Objection to Bradwardine's closure principle
55:16 - Do sentences say they are true?
1:00:59 - Priest's Principle of Uniform Solution

00:0000:00

Stephen Read: Liar Paradox | WSB #41

May 22, 2018

"This sentence is false". Is that sentence true or false? If it's true, then what it says must hold; but what it says is that it's false, so it must be false. But if it's false, then what it says must not hold; but what it says is that it's false, so it must not be false. But if it's not false, it must be true. So if the sentence is true, it is false, and if it is false, it is true. The sentence, therefore, seems to be both true and false, which seems absurd.

Philosopher and logician Stephen Read is one of the preeminent scholars on this "liar paradox". He is known, in large part, for rediscovering and defending a long forgotten solution to the paradox first proposed by the medieval philosopher Thomas Bradwardine. In this first half of our conversation, Read covers the paradox's rich and influential history. It was first discovered, in its full form, in the 4th century BCE by Eubulides (who also first set down the sorites paradox). It became a central problem in the 20th century via its association with Russell's Paradox, a major problem in the foundations of mathematics. Later in the century, two thinkers - Alfred Tarski and Saul Kripke - proposed monumentally influential theories of language and truth motivated, largely, by the paradox. But even after their contributions, the consensus is that the paradox remains unsolved. Quite a few new solutions have been suggested in the decades since Kripke's 1975 proposal. Among the more influential is Stephen Read's revival of the Bradwardine solution, which will the subject of part 2 of this interview.

Next week: Stephen Read: Bradwardine's Solution to the Liar

Visit http://williamnava.com or more info!

I've discussed the Liar briefly before, in both part 1 and part 2 of my interview with Graham Priest.

Special thanks to Jackie Blum for the podcast art, and The Tin Box for the theme music.
Click here for the full list of episodes!

Sources:

Stephen Read (homepage)
"Liar Paradox" (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
"Tarski's Truth Definitions" (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
"Outline of a Theory of Truth" (Saul Kripke)

Topics discussed:

0:19 - Intro to Stephen Read
4:24 - What is the Liar Paradox?
6:33 - The Greeks on the Liar
11:06 - Frege, Cantor's Paradox, and Russell's Paradox
18:24 - Tarski's solution
21:55 - Natural language, formal languages, semantics, and the T-schema
32:03 - Shortcomings of Tarski's solution
36:12 - Kripke's solution

00:0000:00

T.K. Coleman: Sacramental Christianity | WSB #40

May 15, 2018

We often think of religion as being centered around a series of beliefs. To be Christian, I must believe in the veracity of the Bible as a literal account of historical events. Doubt, then, is a problem to be dealt with. Understandable for a while, perhaps, but something which must be overcome in order to be in good standing with the faith.

T.K. Coleman offers an alternative approach to Christianity: a Sacramental approach, which focuses not on the belief requirement, but on the personal and transformative aspect of interacting with the Bible and with the faith. To be a Christian is not to have a set of beliefs, but to seek transformative experiences of intimacy with the divine. The literal truth of the Bible is, to an extent, secondary. Doubt becomes an inescapable part of interacting with the faith as a Sacrament. In the end, some stories may well be literally true, says Coleman; others best seen as metaphorical. For the second half of the interview, we discuss at length the metaphysical and epistemic issues surrounding belief in these stories, and in miracles broadly.

Next week: Stephen Read: Liar Paradox

Visit http://williamnava.com or more info!

I've discussed Christianity before, in my interview with professor Jim Slagle.

Special thanks to Jackie Blum for the podcast art, and The Tin Box for the theme music.
Click here for the full list of episodes!

Sources:

T.K. Coleman (homepage)
Praxis

Topics discussed:

0:19 - Intro to TK Coleman
4:30 - TK's childhood with Christianity
15:11 - The importance of philosophy
27:53 - Doubt
39:55 - Sacramental Christianity
55:33 - Literal veracity of Biblical events
1:07:37 - Metaphorical v. literal interpretations
1:21:40 - Belief in miracles
1:28:18 - Personal experiences and the role of evidence
2:04:05 - Religious pluralism
2:11:40 - Conclusion

00:0000:00

David Papineau: Mary’s Room | WSB #39

May 8, 2018

Mary has lived her entire life in a black and white room. In that room, she learned everything there is to know about the neurophysiology of perception. She knows everything that happens in the brain when a person sees a blue sky. One day, Mary leaves the black and white room and sees the blue sky. Has Mary learned something new?

Frank Jackson posed this famous thought experiment as a challenge to physicalists, such as David Papineau, who argue that qualitative experiences are identical to brain states. If this is really so, the argument goes, Mary isn't learning anything new, since she already knew everything about the relevant brain states. But she does seem to learn something new: what it's actually like to see blue. In this interview, Papineau addresses this challenge and explains why he thinks that, despite our intuitions to the contrary, qualitative experiences are simply neural states under a different description.

Be sure to listen to the first half of this interview, where David explains Russellian monism and the causal argument.

Next week: T.K. Coleman: Sacramental Christianity

Visit http://williamnava.com or more info!

If you're interested in Mary's Room and qualia, check out this interview with David Rosenthal.

Special thanks to Jackie Blum for the podcast art, and The Tin Box for the theme music.
Click here for the full list of episodes!

Sources:

David Papineau (homepage)
"
Naturalism and Physicalism" (David Papineau)
"Epiphenomenal Qualia" (Frank Jackson)

Topics discussed:

1:20 - Mary's room
3:21 - Mary discovers a new concept for the same thing
6:46 - Phenomenal concepts as revelatory
10:37 - Russellian monism again
17:46 - Being like something
19:47 - Ontology of different concepts
32:36 - Aspect of the brain state?

00:0000:00