Political philosophy begins with the question: who should have political authority and why? Anarchism answers: no one. Popular mythology tells us this is synonymous with chaos and disorder, but there are many reasons to doubt this must be so. In this episode, I argue that anarchism - properly understood - is in fact the correct answer to the problem of political authority; it is the only answer that avoids unjust hierarchies, provides for individual and social freedom, and optimizes for general welfare. This is because, in a word, society is best seen (and run) as a web, not as a pyramid.
Much of my focus is on specifying what I mean by anarchism, and which version of anarchism I'm arguing for. Specifically, I argue that the notion of a free market - again, properly understood - is at the heart of anarchism. At the same time, I argue against "capitalism" as being a confused and rather unhelpful notion, quite removed from the notion of a free market. I also argue against popular libertarian approaches to free markets and anarchism, such as the so-called "non-aggression principle" and property rights. Instead, I zero in on a notion of free market defined as a cultural norm in which monopolies are viewed as unacceptable. This definition, I argue, properly communicates what a free market really is and it provides the necessary conditions for a free and prosperous society. It is, at the same time, a maximally permissive definition: it requires no particular views on interpersonal ethics or lifestyle, and is as compatible with (for example) communism as it is with more familiar notions of "free markets".
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0:20 - Intro and disclaimers
5:09 - The question of political authority
7:49 - "The will of the people" justification
12:19 - Resource allocation and "a web, not a pyramid"
14:49 - Unjust hierarchies: the state, capitalism, and others
21:48 - What is capitalism?
26:33 - What is a free market?
31:05 - Against free markets as non-aggression
36:23 - Against free markets as property rights
40:04 - Free markets as anti-monopoly cultural norm
42:35 - Competition as the source of regulation
48:18 - Property rights compatible tyranny
52:44 - Cultural norms
56:12 - Scale, weakness, communism
1:01:50 - More on monopoly, hierarchy, and coordination
1:07:32 - Objections: social order, market regulation, collusion
1:12:44 - Objections: public goods, externalities, defense
1:20:46 - Objections: rent & interest, natural monopolies, epistemic conservatism
1:25:01 - Objections: utopian, people are evil
1:26:26 - Competition as cooperation